Rising environmental awareness provides companies with opportunities to improve their carbon footprint with Linde's proven carbon dioxide (CO2) technologies. We are an experienced partner with a range of solutions in CO2 capture and removal from industrial processes and plant emissions.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) plants
CCSW plants currently provide the most potential to significantly reduce carbon emissions from fossil-fuelled power stations. There are three main pathways for carbon capture:
Post-combustion capture uses chemicals to separate the carbon dioxide in conventional coal-fired power plants. In post-combustion capture, CO₂ is separated from the ﬂue gas by scrubbing, using a chemical solvent such as amine. For this process, Linde provides the amine-based solvent systems and the CO₂ compression, drying and puriﬁcation system.
In pre-combustion capture, also known as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), the fuel is first gasified with oxygen to produce a synthesis gas, then converted into separate streams CO2 and hydrogen. For this process, Linde provides the air separation unit, gasification and synthesis gas systems including shift and Rectisol® wash.
In the oxy-fuel process, coal is combusted in an environment of pure oxygen and CO2. This pure mixture burns at a higher temperature than atmospheric air and results in more efficient burning. The resulting flue gas is not diluted by nitrogen from the air but is primarily CO2 and water vapor. This vapor is easily condensed, leaving a highly concentrated CO2 stream that can be compressed and transferred for storage. for this process, Linde provides the air separation and CO2 units and an optional liquefaction system.
CO2 plantsAs a world leader in cryogenic technology, our CO2 purification and liquefaction plants are the solution of choice where performance, quality, and reliability are a must. Capacities for a modulized single unit range from 100 to 500 TPD with customized solutions to support higher capacities.
Tackling CO₂ emissions
Global warming and climate change concerns are intensifying global efforts to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) in our atmosphere.
Increasingly, attention is focusing on the need to remove CO2 from the flue gases released by several processes in countless industries including power, chemicals and steel. Carbon capture is a key strategy in meeting today’s CO2 emission reduction targets.
Choice of strategy
There are three different carbon capture strategies to choose from, depending on the source of the gas:
- Pre-combustion, combining upstream gasification of fuel with precombustion separation of the CO2
- Oxyfuel combustion, combusting the fuel with pure oxygen to create mainly steam and CO2, which can be easily separated from the flue gas
- Post-combustion, where the CO2 is scrubbed from the flue gas following combustion
Many chemical applications rely on CO2 scrubbing. Oxyfuel technology is an ideal way to increase the efficiency of combustion processes in new power plants. And post-combustion capture (PCC) is targeted specifically at flue gas in existing power plants, typically using a solvent to chemically absorb the CO2 from the flue gases after the combustion process.
Putting captured CO₂ to good use
The captured gas can be used commercially – for example as food-grade CO2, to enhance oil recovery (EOR) or as a feedstock for the production of commodities like methanol or urea. Alternatively, it can be stored underground (sequestered) as a carbon abatement measure.
The captured CO2 can be further purified and liquefied for use in chemical or other industry processes. Alternatively, it can be purified to food-grade level and used in the production of food and beverages.
Complementing our carbon capture offering, we also specialise in CO2 purification, liquefaction, storage and distribution technologies. We offer a range of prefabricated, standardised solutions to accelerate deployment and maximise cost efficiencies. Supporting the full capacity spectrum, we also design and deliver customised plants.
For more detailed information, visit our CO2 removal, post combustion capture and oxyfuel pages.
Linde has great experience in these fields extending over several decades. Besides the well known proprietary Linde scrubbing process RECTISOL® we can build other chemical and physical wash processes including various types of amine wash systems for acid gas removal and sulfur recovery. We offer the full range of engineering services for industrial washing projects. For amin washing we are a licensee of several amin washing processes.
CO₂ purification and liquefaction
World leader in cryogenic technology, Linde has designed and supplied several on-site CO₂ purification and liquefaction plants worldwide – including the world‘s largest units delivering the industry’s highest availability levels.
Our plants are the solution of choice where performance, quality and reliability are a must.
Depending on your needs, we cover the full solution lifecycle – extending from engineering through supply and construction right up to all-inclusive turn key solutions on a lump-sum basis.
Capacities vary from 100 to 500 metric tonnes per day for modularised units with a single train. Customised solutions or several modular trains support capacities above this.
With an on-site CO₂ recycling solution from Linde, not only are you contributing to climate and environmental protection, you also have the benefit of low supply costs and immediate availability of the gas.
Customised and modularised CO₂ recycling solutions combining environmental protection with low cost.